This update recaps the impact of the project in the Khairpur village, located in the Sindh Village and partly funded by Architecture for Humanity. This is what Yasmeen Lari, founder of the Heritage Foundation, has sent to us on 07JUN11 about the current status of the project:
I would like to share with you the positive developments that have occurred since the Khairpur programme was undertaken in March 2011:
· The students workshop conducted with your support, played a major role in showing solidarity with villagers. Participating in fieldwork, students explored local materials and learnt to make friends with a disadvantaged population.
· Focusing on value of education particularly for girls and the importance of hygienic environment conveyed through daily skits brought about the necessary awareness.
· The villagers agreed to confine all animals in one area, thus creating a much more hygienic environment in the village.
· The skill training component has been extremely successful. Two teams brought from Swat (a cold mountainous area) to the flat area in Sindh (extremely hot), proved to be a step towards integration as both groups were surprised at the hospitality and warmth that was expressed for each other. Twenty local Sindh artisans have been trained who, after the return of the Swat team, are now engaged in carrying out further work.
· The use of mud plaster that is mostly applied by women gave them the confidence to begin decorating their own units with shelves and other elements to personalize their houses.
· The use of local materials and local workforce became a source of economic regeneration which bestowed greater buying power on the villagers. As a result for the first time, a grocery shop has been opened in the village (in one of the GKG units). I was able to buy several packets of sweets from the village shop to distribute among scores of children that gather around.
· A village where they make reed panels, has become the supplier for prefabricated roof panels for the GKG programme. An entire village is now able to generate a great deal of income through supply of local roof panels.
· Another village cluster is engaged in making date palm colourful screens which are being used in bath rooms.
· The economic regeneration, even though it is on a small scale, would never have happened if we had brought concrete blocks and alien roofs of galvanized iron sheets.
· The completed women’s centre on stilts has allowed village women to get together on the first floor for discussion and work, while the ground floor, being the coolest place in the whole village is being used as a school. The stilts structure has been designed to provide an elevated safe haven for women and children in case of future floods.
· In my meeting with women last week, on their request we are providing them with a boat so that they could fish in the river, four sewing machines to make patchwork products and to stitch clothes, electrical pumps for each cluster, so that women could water with ease their own vegetable patch. I told them they have to do everything themselves to generate income, and they are ready.
I am optimistic that with their enthusiastic response, we may yet transform the village, lifting them from the apathetic state that we first encountered. Where only a couple of months ago, there seemed to be extreme despondency, in my meeting last week, the women would spontaneously break into clapping and cheers on the number of things that were possible for them to accomplish.
The generous support provided by Architecture for Humanity served as a basic resource that initiated the Heritage Foundation to extend the Green KaravanGhar, nucleus housing programme to the province of Sindh. Khairpur was chosen as the project area based on its importance as a historical district. Parts of the district, known as Kingri, had been affected by flood waters rising to a height of 6’0”, that had washed away the mud houses and all the belongings of disadvantaged communities forced to live close to the water’s edge. These areas locally known as ‘kaccha’ that lay along the river bed, had not only been most affected by the floods but were also furthest off from the main urban areas. On the arrival of the representatives of the Heritage Foundation at Village Darya Khan Sheikh, the squalor, the lack of awareness amongst the community for hygiene and cleanliness were taken up as being important aspects that needed to be worked upon along with the construction of the units.
Due to lack of space and the importance of cattle in their lives, the households had been living in close proximity to their cattle; there was no division between the cattle and themselves. The tents that had been provided during the relief period were occupied by more than a single family and were huddled close together. Tube wells were being utilized as communal washing up spaces, while there seemed to be no proper washrooms or toilets. Children roamed the village without shoes or clean clothes. A school was functioning from inside a mosque with no more than a handful of students. The women of the community were limited to their homes (tents) and followed their traditional role of looking after household chores and a brood of numerous children. Lack of hygiene and clean water had a detrimental effect on the health of the community, but most of all on women and children who clearly suffered from water-borne diseases.
A literacy and craft survey carried out by students based on the survey form developed by HF. The survey was carried out amongst 45 women in the village. All surveyed individuals were married and had several children. Although the women informed that they could read the Holy Quran, it was clear that their literacy level was extremely low. The women were mostly involved in activities within their homes, looking after the cattle (consisting of 4-5 buffaloes or cows), and also worked in the field during harvesting. In their spare time they made handcrafted products such as ralli, a cotton blanket made of patchwork which could take two weeks to several months to complete depending upon the intricacy of the design; woven charpoy, a bedstead of woven webbing or hemp stretched on a wooden frame on four legs, baskets and clothes. In spite of the hard work they put in, they earned no income as there were no marketing opportunities.
It was found that there was only one individual in the village that had completed his matriculation (upto grade 10) and 90% of the female population had never attended school. However, in the recent past, more girls were being sent to attend classes than before.
With the help of the District Government and a local Civil Society Organization, a list of beneficiary families was prepared. This list indicated that some 55 nucleus houses would be required. It was decided that the first 25 units, along with a training workshop would be undertaken with the support of Architecture for Humanity, while further units will be constructed with the pool of funds available with Heritage Foundation for Flood Response. In view of the holistic approach developed by Yasmeen Lari, CEO, Heritage Foundation, it was also decided to add social infrastructure and women’s economic empowerment components to the village programme to achieve self reliance by the community and particularly women.
A soil survey was carried out at Darya Khan Sheikh and Geological test report indicated that the area required more innovative solutions such as the GKG, the soil being unable to support concrete structures. Prior to undertaking construction, a study was made of local materials and building practices. Upon excavation of the first unit it was clear that the foundations would also require an alteration. Firm soil could not be reached until excavations had been carried out till 5 feet or more. The usual methodology of constructing foundations upto 5 feet would result increase the cost exorbitantly, especially since stone was not available in close vicinity and would have to be carted from some distance. A study of brick availability was also carried out; however, in view of the cost of brick and use of energy in its production, preference was given to stone masonry in foundations. The project structural consultant provided an alternative methodology for construction of the foundations. Accordingly a replacement technique was adopted through which compacted pure sand would replace the soil thereby decreasing the wall masonry depth to only 2-3 feet below ground instead of the earlier 5-6 ft. In order to take advantage of the prevailing wind, a wind catcher was incorporated, the design of which was based on the studies carried out by Yasmeen Lari in the early 1980s, and drawings for which were available in her book ‘Traditional Architecture of Thatta’. Another innovation that proved to be time-saving as well as increasing local economy was woven local reed matting. The matting was now made up as prefabricated panels produced in a nearby village. The matting panels were ordered to size and speeded up the construction activity enormously as they arrived as ready to be installed panels for roofs and walls. The weave of reed made it sturdy as well as long lasting. As we continue to build more units, the entire village is now engaged in this activity. Since direct purchases are being made, this has become a source of considerable income for the community.
Layout markings were begun, with each nucleus family receiving a separate unit. Since this had not happened before, with multiple families living in small cramped quarters, addition space was required. The community members decided that a small farm holding where animal fodder was grown would be given up for the few families that did not have space inside the village.
The positive impact of the project has been provision of secure housing to the affected communities. One of the aims of the programme was to mobilise the community and encourage training in building skills. The impact of the training boosted the confidence and sense of self-help and learning capacity of the participants. The whole process strengthened the working partnership between the community and HF staff. Positive impacts also include the psychological contentment of these traumatized communities and their appreciation of the international and national humanitarian support that has been provided to them.
Heritage Foundation has always given precedence to the training of local communities and students. The first order of business when beginning the Green KaravanGhar programme in any area has been the training workshop. The Workshop set between the 21st to the 27th of February proved to be successful in training artisans, community members, student volunteers and civil society representatives. Some 47 individuals listed below underwent this weeklong workshop which included GKG construction techniques, community and participant interactions and awareness activities
HERITAGE FOUNDATION SKILLED TEAM
1. Shad Mohammad
2. Farooq Ibrahim
3. Fazal Rabi
4. Khaista Muhammad
5. Naeem Sulaiman
6. Ejaz Mian
LOCAL ARTISAN TRAINEES
1. Ghulam Mustafa
2. Abdul Khalil
4. Dil Nawaz
1. Faiza Lalwani, Karach University
2. Amin Nathani, Karachi University
3. Faraz Siddiqui, Karachi University
4. Rahim Roudani, Karachi University
5. Kanwal Naz, Karachi University
6. Sheeza Jivani, Karachi University
7. Hayyan Zuberi, Karachi University
8. Owais Hassan, Karachi University
9. Tahwaer Mohibullah, Karachi University
10. Varda Nasir, Karachi University
11. Rajab Ali, Mehran University of Engineering Technology
12. Daniel Bhatti, Mehran University of Engineering Technology
13. Ahmer Hussain, Mehran University of Engineering Technology
14. Iqra K.K., Mehran University of Engineering Technology
15. Anees Ahmad, Mehran University of Engineerging Technology
16. Abdul Mannan, Beaconhouse National University
17. Kashif Ali, Beaconhouse National University
18. Subtain Zulfikat, Beaconhouse Nation University
19. Muhammad Ismail Chakrani, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur
20. Ghulam Hassan Burdi, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur
21. Saima Siddiqui, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur
22. Hamid Saeed Baloch, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur
23. Maria Memon, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur
24. Mohammad Ameen Chandio, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur
25. Abdul Jabbar Phulpoto, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur
26. Naveeda Naz Larik, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur
CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS & OTHER INDIVIDUALS
1. Sobia Kapadia, Faculty, Karachi University
2. Tasleem Abro, Faculty, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur
3. Fahad Shah, Khairpur Civil Society
4. Haji Shams, Khairpur Civil Society
5. Shafi Mohammad, Khairput Civil Society
6. Javed Ai Babar, Indus Resource Centre
7. Khamiso Khan, Indus Resource Centre
8. Ali Ahmad Brohi, Indus Resource Centre
9. Syed Munir Ahmed Shah, Indus Resource Centre
The training involved the participants to understand the materials being employed, fabrication and erection techniques. They also learned various skills that are required during each stage of the GKG construction. Teams were formed which comprised of members from all participation groups and were assigned different tasks each day. These tasks were divided as
• SURVEY – Interacting with community to gather general statistics and information of literacy levels, craft skills and other abilities. The survey teams also undertook activities with community children and held daily performances with a special message for the community
• LAYOUT – cross checking excavations for foundations and correcting mistakes
• MASONRY – involved laying out foundation pad, dressing the stone and laying it in proper masonry bonds as well as preparing mortar with lime and mud.
• BAMBOO – which included cutting, bolting, prefabrication of beams, joists, doors and windows as well as erection and tying of the structure
At the completion of the workshop the following tasks had been undertaken: Training of 26 students; 8 representatives of Civil Society Organization; 12 local artisans and 24 community members.
The certificate award ceremony was attended by the highest official heading the civil administration in Khairpur District, i.e. District Coordinating Officer along with Executive District Officer for community development. The workshop was also attended by University of Glasgow professors, Dr. Peter Meadows, SQA, and Dr. Azra Meadows OBE.
The function was addressed by CEO Heritage Foundation Yasmeen Lari, DCO, Mr. Abbas Baloch and Dr. Azra Meadows and Prof. Dr. Peter Meadows.
• A demo unit was completed in its entirety.
• 28 layouts of houses were carried out.
• Foundations of 5 GKG had been completed
• Bamboo posts of 2 GKG units were erected
Layout and excavation of the Green Women’s centre had been carried out. The Green Women’s Centre was being built on stilts as a place for refuge in case the flood levels rise, beyond the normal water levels.
Success of the Workshop
When Heritage Foundation first arrived at the village, it was seen that the community was in despair. Harsh summer months were approaching and they had been living in the emergency tents or over six months. Not only were there feelings of abandonment amongst the community, but also a lack of trust when it came to outsiders. The region was prone to petty theft and dacoits, and aid had not yet reached the flood affected. Small NGO’s and Civil Society Organizations had arrived earlier and given immediate aid, and constructed washrooms without much interaction with the community, leading them to believe that this latest influx of people would be similar. At the beginning of the workshop, there was an initial hesitance amongst the community, but as the days progressed and increased interactions between the HF skilled artisan team and students with the locals caused a great bond between the three groups. Friendships were formed, discussions were held and problems were discussed openly.
Health and hygiene:
Each students’ group took upon the task of a performance which involved the community members. Performances included issues of health and hygiene, such as the importance of wearing shoes or sandals, washing hands, personal hygiene, environmental cleanliness, and the importance of keeping the livestock at a distance from the house. A hand washing activity was undertaken after a mural painting and a pottery session was held, encouraging the children to wash up after various activities.
During the course of the workshop, it was noted that the community was taking steps towards better personal hygiene, insisting that their children wear shoes and clean clothes. On subsequent visits by Hon. Project Director, Yasmeen Lari, she noted a great deal of enthusiasm for improving their environment. An almost transformation was noted a month after the project had started. Mr. Faisal Khokhar, EDO, District Government of Khairpur commented that the transformation was unbelievable. Not only had various families decorated their houses, they had made a lot of effort to keeping the spaces clean, with regular removal of animal waste. The women also showed a great deal of pride in their clean and decorated houses, and were keen to show the visitors around.
Extra-curricular activities for children
Following the tradition that Heritage Foundation had set since Earthquake 2005 during its work in post-disaster communities, student volunteers organized several activities for the community. Two of the daily performances were based on education and female literacy and were greatly appreciated by the community elders. Students that had arrived from many different cities of the country also included young women, and that proved to be a great motivational factor in creating awareness for female education.
Arts and crafts activities organized for the children in the community introduced the concept of play during learning, as children realized their artistic abilities. The school teacher was enthused to learn that simple crafts such as pottery would spark such an interest in the students and expressed that he would continue to hold such activities with them. When the final assembly was held, the colourful murals painted by children who had never held a brush in their hands was a source of wonder. The clay objects, many resembling the clay objects found in closeby archaeological site of Moenjodaro, showed the potential that exists if opportunities are provided to young people.
At the completion of the Demonstration Unit, the community members displayed much appreciation. Initially they were opposed to the idea of attached bathrooms, having never used them before. Participants and Heritage Foundation personnel discussed the hesitance of the local community and explained to them the increased ease and level of hygiene that the attached bathroom would provide. Some women were also skeptical of attached kitchens but once the first few houses were constructed and kitchen put into operation, the advantages of such an arrangement came into view.
As the men in the house began to dig foundations, it was clear that an atmosphere of excitement was growing with the artisan teams completing unit after unit. The beneficiary families were asked to begin finishing the units. Traditionally, women have been involved in preparing plasters and applying it to their homes and they are the best plaster experts in most rural communities of Pakistan are women. The use of mud in the GKG provides the opportunity to women to equally participate in completion of their houses. In addition to the use of lime introduced by HF artisan teams, women also added their own traditional ingredients – cow dung and straw, giving the plaster its own unique indigenous texture and identity. Photographs could not be taken to illustrate the involvement of women due to cultural constraints. Each family painted their units in unique colours, as suggested by the local “colour consultant”- the school teacher. Each household hung unique handcrafted ‘rallis’ (patchwork cotton blankets) on their doors, thus personalizing each home.
The interest shown by the community displays the satisfaction of the beneficiary families and the people from the surrounding areas. Upon moving into their GKG units families will be provided with packages of Non-Food Items that have been requested by the Heritage Foundation from the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). These packages include household items such as bedding and kitchen utensils.
In the case of Swat, the Green KaravanGhar units were remotely located in small clusters or single units, hence the tangible impact of the Heritage Foundation efforts were not as visible as in the case of Darya Khan Sheikh. Here the village is close knit, and the affects of an educated and rational intervention through organized systems and methodology have resulted in a marked improvement in the living standard of the locals. They have quickly grown aware of basic human issues such as hygiene, literacy and women’s rights. Further development will be closely monitored and regular interactions with the community will ensure that the conditions in the village continue to improve.
As part of HF’s holistic rehabilitation programme, in addition to 25 GKG units being constructed with the AFH grant, the remaining 30 GKG units have been completed, along with construction of Green Women’s Centre on a piece of land provided by the community. This work has been undertaken thorough the generous support provided by HF partners Swiss Pakistan Society. Additionally, on request of the community a 2-room school and a small clinic is being taken up for construction. The Green Women’s Centre is being equipped with sewing machines and other toolkits for women’s craft skills. Efforts are also being made to train them in making finished products for marketing in urban areas. The Green Women’ Centre, is expected to provide a haven for the women of the village as it will act as a gathering and training centre. Additionally, since it has been built on stilts, rising 8-9 feet above the ground level, during the time of flood disaster it will provide a place of refuge for women and children. Because of the resilience and strength of the structure, the water is expected to flow freely under the building, thus keeping the upper structure safe.
Two solar dehydrator fashioned in bamboo has been assembled and successfully tested for dehydration of banana and fish. A woman in the community has shown interest in being trained for manufacturing solar dehydrators. Arrangements are being made so that she is able to manufacture and supply the dehydrator to those interested in dehydration of food products.
The villagers expressed their need for a boat to cross the river to landholdings on the other side and undertake fishing; hence Heritage Foundation is currently trying to gather support for this. Since there is no electric grid in the area, it was also considered important to look into renewable energy sources, for example bio gas plant.
In view of the success of the GKG Sindh and its aspects of mix of lime and mud and addition of wind catcher, that provide it micro-climatic control and consequent comfort in the extreme heat of Khairpur, the beneficiaries families have expressed satisfaction and enthusiastic acceptance of GKG. Additionally, HF has been inundated with requests from surrounding communities for building more such structures in the area. As a response, work has been undertaken for construction of another 40 GKG units in a nearby village, Uthero. The community has also requested for construction of a Green Women’s Centre on stilts and a clinic, and other facilities, which will soon be taken up.
Village Darya Khan Shaikh, Union Council Kot Mir Muhammad, Taluka Kingri, District Khairpur, Sindh.
GPS Location: N:27* 39' 00.7"
E:68* 36' 00.1
Dates: 21 to 27 February 2011
Heritage Foundation representatives visited the region and were guided by the District Government and Khairpur Civil Society, in identifying villages that required most assistance. Findings based on information collected, visits to different sites, interviews and discussions with local communities and civil society organizations suggested that the community at the Darya Khan Shaikh village was the most economically challenged.
The village is in what is locally known as ‘kaccha’ (along the river bed) area. The community members are primarily tenants to small holding of land which they work for a landlord. A larger percentage of produce is handed over, resulting in a very low income for each family. Based on survey carried out it was found that family sizes are large with 7-8 children. Affected households exceed 50 homes and the District Government has provided the Heritage Foundation with a list of intended beneficiaries.
Majority of the community was living in tents that had been provided as immediate relief, and because most had taken loans from various organizations and individuals for the crop that was destroyed in the floods, they are in heavy debts; hence reconstruction has not been an option. Currently more than one family occupies a tent.
A lack of schools and medical facilities in the region result in poor hygiene and lack of education and awareness among the society. Primary school recently setup in mosque and Art Center (set up by Plan Pakistan) in a tent provides basic education to a small minority of the children in the village.
Livestock and cattle are not enclosed, resulting in a further deteriorated state of hygiene.
A survey of local materials available in the region was also undertaken to see if the Green KaravanGhar could be built in material used previously or if alternatives could be used. Bamboo and stone were locally available. Mud found on site was sent for geological testing. Date Palm and a local branching tree called Pinj’r could also be used in place of matting but cost of both materials was higher than those used in the Green KaravanGhar. Local bamboo matting was interwoven giving it more strength than matting used in Swat. This material can be used not only for walls but for the roofing system as well, since Sindh has a mild climate no provision needs to be made for snow load as in the case of Swat GKGs, requiring a lighter supporting structure.
Alteration to Standard Green KaravanGhar was made to incorporate a wind catcher to take advantage of the prevailing breeze. Site specifications also require that plinth be raised to 2 feet, and since firm soil is not reached till 5 feet, cost allocation for excavations and stone masonry must be increased.
As the project has been devised to work as a training model, a week-long workshop was organized between the 21st and 22nd of February 2011. The workshop was to involve the local community, train local artisans in the skill of bamboo construction and student volunteers from different institutions. The local community was approached by the local Civil Society Organization, while the artisans were recruited based on their experience of working on site and level of interest shown in the program. A registration form was circulated for student volunteers and a large number of responses were received. The participants of the workshop are as follows:
Heritage Foundation Skilled Artisans Team
A 12-member group of workers including masons and carpenters travelled from Swat to help train the local community members. This team included the community members who were trained in the Green KaravanGhar building methodology while housing units were being constructed in Swat. It was the first time for all members of this team to be in a different part of the country. They were pleased to interact with fellow countrymen and teach them the new and sustainable methods of construction.
Local Artisan Trainees
An initial 12 local member team was chosen to participate in the workshop. These local semi-skilled artisans were to be trained in the many stages of the construction of the Green KaravanGhar. Members were told to understand each stage and then were later told to focus on tasks that they were particularly better at. The Trainees received a stipend equivalent to the standard daily wage. By the end of the week long workshop more local community members wished to be skilled in this unique yet simple construction technique.
Architectural students arrived from Karachi University, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology and Beaconhouse National University. Students from the hosting Shah Abdul Latif University were from the departments of Conservation and Archeology. These participants conducted surveys and involved the local community in various activities including a daily performance (with a specific message); mural painting and pottery making for children, a hand-washing and other hygiene related activities. They also participated in the construction of the GKG, under the instructions of the skilled artisans’ team from Swat. This hands-on training in building methodologies and community development gave the students an experience that was rich in both technical and social interaction.
The GKG beneficiaries were asked to excavate their won foundation and generally participated in helping build their own houses. Local community members were asked to participate in various activities arranged by the students. They were also made aware of many issues that had to be addressed relating to hygiene and education.
Civil Society Organizations
Two local organizations, the Khairpur Civil Society and Indus Resource Centre were also involved during the workshop as trainees. These members were taught the methods of construction, how to use the sustainable materials and the way to organize this modular self-help program, as well as in community activities involving students and others.
At the conclusion of the workshop, the Demonstration Unit was completed. All participants had worked on various stages of the construction of the Green KaravanGhar. Local artisans, students and CSO officials helped prefabricate doors, joists and beams for 25 GKG units. They also participated in laying the foundations and tying the structure together. All participants were taught how to mix mortars, fill and finish the walls, roof and floor of the unit. Layouts of the first 20 houses have been demarked and excavations have been made for the first 17. Stone masonry to the raised plinth level has begun on four of the units and it is expected that all 25 units will be completed in the next three weeks.
The site was mobilized on 20 February by which time the skilled artisans teams from Swat had arrived. The delivery of all the material including bamboo supplies, bolts, lime, polythene sheets etc. had been arranged which had become available by the time construction work was undertaken.
The workshop participants arrived on 21st February. The inaugural briefing regarding the programme was given by Ms. Yasmeen Lari, CEO, Heritage Foundation on 22nd at the site, where a shamiana (awning) had been erected where banners and photographs of GKGs built in Swat. The briefing was followed by details of the participants and their organization by HF Project Coordinator, Ar. Mariyam Nizam. The details of how the GKG structure is put together including demonstration through a training kit was provided by HF Project Manager, Naheem Shah.
The following targets had been achieved by 27 February 2011:
Training of 28 students; 8 representatives of Civil Society Organization; 12
The following update, recounting the progress of the work slated for the Sindh Province, was received from Yasmeen Lari on 06FEB11:
By the middle of the month we would have completed the construction of 266 housing units in Swat, where they have been tested due to snow and rain, in some areas withstanding as much as 3’0” of snow. Our site management and trained artisans teams from Swat will now be brought to Sindh for providing training and initiate construction activity. The housing units for Sindh are being designed to reflect local conditions based on an in-depth reconnaissance of the area undertaken recently.
Arrangements are afoot for the workshop to be conducted in the last week of February in Khairpur District, where we are planning to set up a tent camp for all participants.
Khairpur city itself is a great historic town with archaeological remains known as Kot Diji site. In view of my discussions with local administration and with Vice Chancellor Khairpur University, I am optimistic that once local artisans have been trained, it would be possible to undertake a variety of construction - from buffer zone boundary walls (the site is presently highly vulnerable) to children’s assembly areas - to bring about greater awareness regarding the importance of heritage safeguarding.
During the summer of 2010, Pakistan experienced devastating flood conditions. This natural disaster was of astounding magnitude, swallowing up nearly one fifth of the country's land area, destroying infrastructure, affecting farm lands and displacing some 20 million people.
Architecture for Humanity is pleased to announce that it has awarded reconstruction grants to two Karachi-based organizations, the Heritage Foundation and its own Karachi chapter in collaboration with the Karachi Relief Trust.
The Heritage Foundation
Architecture for Humanity-Karachi chapter in collaboration with the Karachi Relief Trust
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